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Word , released in October , replaced the Elements Gallery in favor of a Ribbon user interface that is much more similar to Office for Windows,  and includes a full-screen mode that allows users to focus on reading and writing documents, and support for Office Web Apps. Microsoft Word's native file formats are denoted either by a. Although the. The newer. During the late s and early s, the default Word document format. DOC became a de facto standard of document file formats for Microsoft Office users.
As with all OLE Compound Files, Word Binary Format consists of "storages", which are analogous to computer folders , and "streams", which are similar to computer files. Each storage may contain streams or other storages. Word and later continue to support the DOC file format, although it is no longer the default.
Opening a Word Document file in a version of Word other than the one with which it was created can cause incorrect display of the document. The document formats of the various versions change in subtle and not so subtle ways such as changing the font, or the handling of more complex tasks like footnotes. Formatting created in newer versions does not always survive when viewed in older versions of the program, nearly always because that capability does not exist in the previous version.
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In October , one year before the Microsoft Office suite was released, Microsoft declared that there was insufficient demand from Microsoft customers for the international standard OpenDocument format support, and that therefore it would not be included in Microsoft Office This statement was repeated in the following months.
This work was started in response to government requests for interoperability with ODF. The goal of project was not to add ODF support to Microsoft Office, but only to create a plugin and an external toolset. Among its features, Word includes a built-in spell checker, a thesaurus, a dictionary, and utilities for manipulating and editing text.
The following are some aspects of its feature set. Several later versions of Word include the ability for users to create their own formatting templates, allowing them to define a file in which the title, heading, paragraph, and other element designs differ from the standard Word templates. For example, Normal. It determines the margin defaults as well as the layout of the text and font defaults. Although normal. This will change other documents which were created using the template, usually in unexpected ways.
It can also be used to create and display simple line-art. Microsoft Word added support  for the common SVG vector image format in for Office ProPlus subscribers and this functionality was also included in the Office release. WordArt enables drawing text in a Microsoft Word document such as a title, watermark, or other text, with graphical effects such as skewing, shadowing, rotating, stretching in a variety of shapes and colors and even including three-dimensional effects. Users can apply formatting effects such as shadow, bevel, glow, and reflection to their document text as easily as applying bold or underline.
Users can also spell-check text that uses visual effects, and add text effects to paragraph styles. A Macro is a rule of pattern that specifies how a certain input sequence often a sequence of characters should be mapped to an output sequence according to defined process. Frequently used or repetitive sequences of keystrokes and mouse movements can be automated. Like other Microsoft Office documents, Word files can include advanced macros and even embedded programs.
This extensive functionality can also be used to run and propagate viruses in documents. The tendency for people to exchange Word documents via email, USB flash drives , and floppy disks made this an especially attractive vector in A prominent example was the Melissa virus , but countless others have existed. These macro viruses were the only known cross-platform threats between Windows and Macintosh computers and they were the only infection vectors to affect any macOS system up until the advent of video codec trojans in Microsoft released patches for Word X and Word that effectively eliminated the macro problem on the Mac by Word's macro security setting, which regulates when macros may execute, can be adjusted by the user, but in the most recent versions of Word, is set to HIGH by default, generally reducing the risk from macro-based viruses, which have become uncommon.
Before Word Word 14 for Windows, the program was unable to correctly handle ligatures defined in TrueType fonts. Since Word , the program now has advanced typesetting features which can be enabled:  OpenType ligatures,  kerning , and hyphenation.
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Other layout deficiencies of Word include the inability to set crop marks or thin spaces. Various third-party workaround utilities have been developed. In Word for Mac OS X, support of complex scripts was inferior even to Word 97,  and Word does not support Apple Advanced Typography features like ligatures or glyph variants.
Microsoft Word supports bullet lists and numbered lists. It also features a numbering system that helps add correct numbers to pages, chapters, headers, footnotes, and entries of tables of content; these numbers automatically change to correct ones as new items are added or existing items are deleted. Bullets and numbering can be applied directly to paragraphs and convert them to lists. In particular, a second irrelevant numbered list might have not started with number one, but instead resumed numbering after the last numbered list.
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Although Word 97 supported a hidden marker that said the list numbering must restart afterwards, the command to insert this marker Restart Numbering command was only added in Word However, if one were to cut the first item of the listed and paste it as another item e. Users can also create tables in Word.
Depending on the version, Word can perform simple calculations — along with support for formulas and equations as well. Available in certain versions of Word e. According to Ron Fein of the Word 97 team, AutoSummarize cuts wordy copy to the bone by counting words and ranking sentences. First, AutoSummarize identifies the most common words in the document barring "a" and "the" and the like and assigns a "score" to each word — the more frequently a word is used, the higher the score.
Then, it "averages" each sentence by adding the scores of its words and dividing the sum by the number of words in the sentence — the higher the average, the higher the rank of the sentence. AutoSummarize was removed from the Office release version 14 as well. The second and the third type of passwords were developed by Microsoft for convenient shared use of documents rather than for their protection. There is no encryption of documents that are protected by such passwords, and Microsoft Office protection system saves a hash sum of a password in a document's header where it can be easily accessed and removed by the specialized software.
Password to open a document offers much tougher protection that had been steadily enhanced in the subsequent editions of Microsoft Office. Word 95 and all the preceding editions had the weakest protection that utilized a conversion of a password to a bit key. Key length in Word 97 and was strengthened up to 40 bit. However, modern cracking software allows removing such a password very quickly — a persistent cracking process takes one week at most. Use of rainbow tables reduces password removal time to several seconds. Some password recovery software can not only remove a password, but also find an actual password that was used by a user to encrypt the document using brute-force attack approach.
Statistically, the possibility of recovering the password depends on the password strength.
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Nonetheless, a password can be fairly quickly picked with brute-force attack, because its speed is still high regardless of the CSP selected. Moreover, since the CSPs are not active by the default, their use is limited to advanced users only.
Word offers a significantly more secure document protection which utilizes the modern Advanced Encryption Standard AES that converts a password to a bit key using a SHA-1 hash function times. It makes password removal impossible as of today, no computer that can pick the key in reasonable amount of time exists , and drastically slows the brute-force attack speed down to several hundreds of passwords per second.
Word's protection algorithm was not changed apart from increasing number of SHA-1 conversions up to times, and consequently, the brute-force attack speed decreased two times more. BYTE in criticized the documentation for Word 1.
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It called the software "clever, put together well, and performs some extraordinary feats", but concluded that "especially when operated with the mouse, has many more limitations than benefits While the review cited an excellent WYSIWYG display, sophisticated print formatting, windows, and footnoting as merits, it criticized many small flaws, very slow performance, and "documentation apparently produced by Madame Sadie's Pain Palace".
It concluded that Word was "two releases away from potential greatness". It's like a Mozart or Edison , whose occasional gaucherie we excuse because of his great gifts". Despite its commercial success, it has also been argued in the scientific community that Word might not be well-suited for large-scale projects with high typographical demands, due to issues such as file compatibility, poor typography, low image quality and limited feature scalability. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Word processor developed by Microsoft.
A story being written and formatted in Word, running on Windows Office Windows 10 Windows 8. Main article: History of Microsoft Word.
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How to Add Page Numbers to PDF on Mac with Preview
Main article: WordArt. Main article: Microsoft Office password protection. April Microsoft Docs. Retrieved October 8, The Verge. Retrieved August 15, Retrieved March 30, Retrieved October 15, Retrieved October 23, App Store. Retrieved October 18, June 17, Retrieved April 12, Allen, Roy October Allan Publishing.
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